What is Genetic Engineering?                                     insert
                and repair
     Gene editing began with the selective breeding of animals and crop improvements via horticultural breeding and natural selection. Early biotechnology included the activity of microbes for bread making, cheese, beer and wine. Today genetic engineering is primarily molecular.
Recombinant DNA                            
molecules of DNA formed by laboratory or natural methods.
Gene cloning
using laboratory methods to make identical, or nearly identical, copies of an organism, cell or DNA sequence.
Gene splicing
a pre-mRNA transcribed from a DNA segment is cut up to make different mature mRNA molecules that may generate multiple functional proteins. Gene splicing is an important source of protein diversity.
Genetic modification
Genetic modification is a technique to change the characteristics of a plant, animal or micro-organism by transferring a piece of DNA from one organism to a different organism.
Gene editing
Gene editing refers to the process of changing regions of cellular DNA. The most common gene editing techniques involve inactivating a gene's function (knockout), introducing or correcting a SNP mutation, or adding an endogenous gene (knock-in).
Synthetic biology
is a multidisciplinary field of molecular sciences that focuses on living systems and organisms, and it applies engineering principles to develop new biological parts, devices, and systems or to redesign existing systems found in nature.
in vitro fertilization, stem cell biology, mammalian cloning, DNA sequencing, brewing yeasts, GMO's (genetically modified plants & animals), synthetic insulins, HGH, mRNA vaccines & genomics.